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Department of Sanskrit started with the inception of the Muir Central College in 1872 under the leadership of Prof. Pandit Adityaram Bhattacharya, an erudite Sanskrit academician and became integral part of University of Allahabad and since then has been a pioneer in Sanskrit education while motivating the students to work towards wholesome development and nurture leadership qualities for about last 150 years. The department offers undergraduate and postgraduate programs of study and is home to a vibrant and dynamic community of scholars. Highly selective Graduate Program of the department trains students to become both skilled scholars and effective teachers.

Department has a long tradition of great scholars of Sanskrit such as Sir Gaṅgānāth Jhā , Prof Prasanna Kumar Acharya, Prof. Babu Ram Saxena, Prof. Kshetresa Chandra Chattopadhyaya , Prof Saraswati Prasad Chaturvedi, Prof M. Hirlekar, Prof. Mitthu lal Shastri, Prof. Adyaprasad Mishra, Prof. Laxmikant Dikshit, Prof. Chndika Prasad Shukla, Prof. Sureshchandra Shrivastava, Prof. Suresh Chandra Pande, Prof. Gyandevi Shrivastava, Prof. Harishankar Tripathi, Prof. Mridula Tripathi, Prof. Rajlaxmi Varma,Prof. Haridutt Sharma, Prof. Ram Kishor Shastri, Prof. Kishwar Jabi Nasarin, Prof Shankar Dayal Dwivedi, Prof. Kaushal Kishor Srivastava, and Prof. Abhiraj Rajendra Mishra, Prof. Umakant Yadav and Prof. Ram SewakDubey. Graduates of the department are faculty member/researcher in several top-rated academic institutions of India like Central Universities and state universities and several have proved themselves in administrative services at the Central and State level, social worker, etc. The Department has always kept pace by modifying its course content with the changing research. The curricula are updated and implemented through systematic syllabus revision and induction of new-age discourses like critical thinking, life-skills, outcome-based pedagogy, training in problem-solving, outreach activities and employability. Faculty members are involved in interdisciplinary, collaborative research with national and international organizations and have contributed in formulating reports of several high-level committees. The department has been known for its high quality and innovative pedagogy. It has a great tradition of research and teaching in the field of Indian Philosophy, Buddhist philosophy, Nyāya-Śāstra, Hindu Architecture, Veda, Sanskrit Literature, Poetics, Pali, Prakrit, Sanskrit Grammar and Linguistic etc. Several Faculty Members have held administratively inclined positions in the field of education as well. Sir Gaṅgānāth Jhā was appointed as vice-chancellor of the University of Allahabad (1923–32) while Prof. Babu Ram Saxena held the position of vice-chancellor of two universities; the University of Allahabad (1972–73) and Ravi Shankar University, Raipur, Chhattishgarh. Prof. Adyaprasad Mishra (1979-80) and Prof. Sureshchandra Shrivastava (1994-97) also became vice-chancellors the University of Allahabad. Prof. Abhiraj Rajendra Mishra, a prolific creative writer in Sanskrit Literature, was appointed Vice-Chancellor of the Sampurnananda Sanskrit University, Varanasi. Faculty members in the past have also been felicitated with awards time and again. Government of India's prestigious award Padma Shri was conferred upon Prof. Adyaprasad Mishra and Prof. Abhiraj Rajendra Mishra (2020) for their work in the field of Sanskrit literature and education. Certificate of Honour from the President of India was also conferred upon several faculty members of the department, namely, Prof. Adyaprasad Mishra, Prof. Chandrikaprasad Shukla, Prof. Suresh Chandra Pande, Prof. Abhiraj Rajendra Mishra and Prof. Haridutt Sharma. Sir Gaṅgānāth Jhā became Member, Council of State (1920–1923), and was awarded Honorary Fellowship of the Asiatic Society (1924), Honorary Member, Royal Asiatic Society, London, Campbell Memorial Gold Medal, Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society (1935) and Knight Bachelor (1941).

Sahitya Sammelana, Prayag; Vishishta Purakar Government of Uttar Pradesh; Award from Uttar Pradesh Sanskrit Sansthan. He was appointed as professor of Prakrit at Parshwanath Vidyapeeth, Varanasi and was National Fellow of IIAS Shimla. Prof. Haridutt Sharma is a distinguished scholar of Sanskrit Literature and also a prolific creative-writer. He has published several prose and drama books and has been awarded by Sahitya Academy, New Delhi, Delhi Sanskrit Academy, UP Sanskrit Academy. He is also recipient of Maharshi Vyas award and Kalidas award. Prof. Shankar Dayal Dwivedi was a renowned professor of philosophy and Sanskrit literature. Recently, 23 new faculty members have been appointed in the Department. At present, department is progressing under able leadership of Prof. Ram Sewak Dubey, Head of the Department. Prof. Dubey is a noted scholar of Philosophy and published several books related to his area of specialization and has developed more than 150 e-content on Indian philosophy. He has contributed significantly to the corporate life of the University by successfully dispersing several administrative responsibilities.

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